Gautama Buddha

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Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha

Usa nga estatwa han Buddha tikang Sarnath, ika-4 nga gatostuig
Natawo 563 UC
Lumbini, yana ha Lumbini Zone, Nepal
Namatay 483 UC (edad 80) o 411 ngan 400 UC
Kushinagar, yana ha Uttar Pradesh, India
Etnisidad Shakya
Nakilala han Nagtukod han Buddhismo
Gin-unhan Kassapa Buddha
Gin-sundan Maitreya Buddha

Hi Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) in anay ispirituwal nga manurutdo tikang ha ubos-nga-kontinente han Indya, nga an iya mga tinutdo natukod an Buddhismo.[1] Haros ngatanan nga nahigaraan nga Buddhismo, hiya in gindudunggan komo an Labaw nga Buddha (P. sammāsambuddha, S. samyaksaṃbuddha) han aton panahon, "Buddha" in may-ada kasirigngon nga "an nagpukrat" o "an nalamragan".[note 1] An oras nga natawo hiya ngan kamatayan in waray kasasabti: urog nga unhan nga ika-20 nga gatostuig nga historyano in nagpepetsa han iya kinabuhi ha 563 BCE ngadto ha 483 UC[2], pero ha mas bag-o nga opinyon in nagpepetsa han iya kamatayan ha butnga han 486 ngan 483 BCE o, sumala han iba, ha kabutngaan han 411 ngan 400 UC.[3][4] Base han pipira nga arkelohikal nga pananabutan nga mga sinurat, hi Buddha in natawo ha Lumbini, kabag-ohan nga Nepal[5][6], nga uska UNESCO world heritage site.[5] An iba nga pananabutan arkeyolohikal in nagtitigo nga hi Buddha in natawo ha Kapilavastu ha Piprahwa, Uttar Pradesh, kabag-ohan nga Indya o Kapileswara, Orissa, kabag-ohan nga India.[7][8][9][10][11] Hiya in nanudlo ha mga rehiyon han sinirangan nga dapit han Indya sugad han Magadha ngan Kośala.[12][13]

Hi Gautama, ginkikilala gihap komo Śākyamuni, an panguna nga kusog han Buddhismo, ngan an mga nahabaruan han iya kinabuhi, pakikipagkurukayakan, ngan surundan monastico in gintutuuhan han mga Buddhista nga dinalikyat kahuman han iya kamatayan ngan gintitigamnan han iya mga manurunod. An mga dirudilain nga mga koleksyon han nasusumpay ha iya mga tinutdo in ginpapasapasa ha linuwas nga nahigaraan, ngan syahan nga sinurat pagkahuman han 400 ka tuig nga sinmunod.

Ha Hinduismo, hiya in gindudunggan komo usa ha napulo nga mga avatar han Diyos Vishnu.[14]. Hiya in gindudunggan komo diyos o manaragna ha iba nga mga relihiyon han kalibutan o mga denominasyon sugad han kiwa relihiyosa nga Ahmadiyya Islamico[15] ngan panuo Bahá'í.

Mga kasarigan[igliwat | edit source]

Mga kasuratan
  1. Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1962–1985). buddha 9276. A comparative dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages. London: Oxford University Press. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. Ginkità dida han 22 February 2010.
Mga kasarigan
  1. Boeree, George. An Introduction to Buddhism. Shippensburg University. Ginkità dida han 2011-09-10.
  2. L. S. Cousins (1996), "The dating of the historical Buddha: a review article", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (3)6(1): 57–63.
  3. See the consensus in the essays by leading scholars in The Date of the Historical Śākyamuni Buddha (2003) Edited by A. K. Narain. B. R. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. ISBN 81-7646-353-1.
  4. "If, as is now almost universally accepted by informed Indological scholarship, a re-examination of early Buddhist historical material, ..., necessitates a redating of the Buddha's death to between 411 and 400 BCE...." —Paul Dundas, The Jains, 2nd edition, (Routledge, 2001), p. 24.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha. UNESCO. Ginkità dida han 26 May 2011.
  6. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/
  7. Kapilavastu. Ginkità dida han 1 March 2011.
  8. http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl2204/stories/20050225001008800.htm
  9. http://www.rediff.com/news/2002/sep/16spec.htm
  10. http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2008/03/buddha-born-in-orissa-scholars.html
  11. http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Journal/jounalvol1/pdf/orhj-3.pdf
  12. Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 45
  13. Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 41
  14. Nagendra Kumar Singh (1997). "Buddha as depicted in the Purāṇas". Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Volume 7. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. pp. 260–275. ISBN 9788174881687. http://books.google.com/?id=UG9-HZ5icQ4C&pg=PA260. List of Hindu scripture that declares Gautama Buddha as 9th Avatar of Vishnu as as follows [Harivamsha (1.41) Vishnu Purana (3.18) Bhagavata Purana (1.3.24, 2.7.37, 11.4.23 Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24 Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24, Garuda Purana (1.1, 2.30.37, 3.15.26) Agni Purana (160.Narada Purana (2.72)Linga Purana (2.71) Padma Purana (3.252) etc. Bhagavata Purana, Canto 1, Chapter 3 - SB 1.3.24: "Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya, just for the purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist." ... The Bhavishya Purana contains the following: "At this time, reminded of the Kali Age, the god Vishnu became born as Gautama, the Shakyamuni, and taught the Buddhist dharma for ten years. Then Shuddodana ruled for twenty years, and Shakyasimha for twenty. At the first stage of the Kali Age, the path of the Vedas was destroyed and all men became Buddhists. Those who sought refuge with Vishnu were deluded." Found in Wendy O'Flaherty, Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. University of California Press, 1976, page 203. Note also SB 1.3.28: "All of the above-mentioned incarnations [avatars] are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord [Krishna or Vishnu]"
  15. Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat Retrieved on February 2011

Dugang nga barasahon[igliwat | edit source]

  • Ambedkar, B.R. (1957). The Buddha and His Dhamma. Bombay: People's Education Society.
  • Armstrong, Karen (2001). Buddha. New York: Penguin Books.
  • Bechert, Heinz, ed. (1996). When Did the Buddha Live? The Controversy on the Dating of the Historical Buddha. Delhi: Sri Satguru.
  • Conze, Edward, trans. (1959). Buddhist Scriptures. London: Penguin Books.
  • Ñāṇamoli, Bhikku (1992). The Life of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon (3rd ed.). Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
  • Ortner, Jon (2003). Buddha. New York: Welcome Books.
  • Rahula, Walpola (1974). What the Buddha Taught (2nd ed.). New York: Grove Press.
  • Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen (1957). Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. New York: Doubleday.
  • Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L.; Wawrytko, Sandra A.; DeGraff, Geoffrey (1996). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co..
  • Sathe, Shriram (1987). Dates of the Buddha. Hyderabad: Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti.
  • Senzaki, Nyogen; McCandless, Ruth Strout (1953). Buddhism and Zen. New York: Philosophical Library.