↑Nielsen, J.G. (1990) Carapidae., p. 578. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
↑ 2.02.1Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins (1999) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 18. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO.