↑Hartel, K.E. and G. Dingerkus (1997) Types of Garman chondrichthyan species in the Museum of Comparative Zoology., p. xxxvi-xlix. In The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates and Rays) by Samuel Garman (reprint ed.). Benthic Press, Los Angeles.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (1999) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 1999.
↑Wheeler, A. (1992) A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles., J. Fish Biol. 41(1):1-37.
↑McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn (1998) Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae)., Copeia (2):271-290.