↑ 2.02.12.22.32.4Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra (1991) Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species., Indo-Pacific Fishes (20):332 p.
↑Monkolprasit, S., S. Sontirat, S. Vimollohakarn and T. Songsirikul (1997) Checklist of Fishes in Thailand., Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Thailand. 353 p.
↑Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene (1997) Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Second Edition. Revised and expanded edition., Crawford House Publishing Pty Ltd. Bathurst, NSW, Australia. 557 p.
↑ 5.05.1Fricke, R. (1999) Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez): an annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species., Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Theses Zoologicae, Vol. 31:759 p.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2001) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of December 2001., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in December 2001.
↑Chen, C.-H. (2004) Checklist of the fishes of Penghu., FRI Special Publication No. 4. 175 p.
↑ 8.08.18.2Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall (1993) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.