↑Hart, J.L. (1973) Pacific fishes of Canada., Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p.
↑Evermann, B.W. and E.L. Goldsborough (1907) The fishes of Alaska., Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 26:219-360.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (1998) Catalog of fishes., Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
↑McAllister, D.E. (1990) A working list of fishes of the world., Copies available from D.E. McAllister, Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6P4, Canada. 2661 p. plus 1270 p. Index.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann (1983) A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p.