Hinindustani

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Hindustani
Hindi-Urdu
हिन्दुस्तानी   •   ہندوستانی
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Native to India, Pakistan. Various countries through immigration.
Native speakers
240 million  (1991–1997)[1]
Second language: 165 million (1999)[2]
Standard forms
Dialects
Khariboli (Dehlavi)
Kauravi
Perso-Arabic (Urdu alphabet)
Devanagari (Hindi alphabet)
Braille (Hindi Braille and Pakistani Urdu Braille )
Kaithi (historical)
Indian Signing System (ISS)[3]
Signed Urdu
Official status
Official language in
 India (as Hindi, Urdu)
 Pakistan (as Urdu)
Regulated by Central Hindi Directorate (Hindi, India),[4]
National Language Authority, (Urdu, Pakistan);
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (Urdu, India)[5]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 hi, ur
ISO 639-2 hin, urd
ISO 639-3 Either:
hin – Standard Hindi
urd – Urdu
Glottolog hind1270[6]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-qa to -qf
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Areas (red) where Hindustani (Khariboli/Kauravi) is the native language
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Areas where Hindi or Urdu is the official language

     Provincial level      Secondary provincial language

     National level
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

An Hinindi-Inurdu (هندی اردو, हिंदी उर्दू) in uska Indo-Aryano nga pinulungan ngan yinaknan ha Amihanan nga Indyan ngan Pakistan. Ginkikilala gihap ini nga Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, Hindustānī, Hindavi, and Rekhta.

Pinanbasaran[igliwat | igliwat an pinagtikangan]

  1. Standard Hindi: 180 million India (1991). Urdu: 48 million India (1997), 11 million Pakistan (1993). Ethnologue 16. (Ethnologue 17 figures for Hindi are not restricted to Standard Hindi.)
  2. 120 million Standard Hindi (1999), 45 million Urdu (1999). Ethnologue 16.
  3. Punarbhava: Sign Language Interpreter Course
  4. The Central Hindi Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India. Source: Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction
  5. National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language
  6. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert et al., eds. (2013). "Hindustani". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/hind1270.

Bibliograpiya[igliwat | igliwat an pinagtikangan]

  • Asher, R. E. (1994). Hindi. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1547–1549).
  • Asher, R. E. (Ed.). (1994). The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • Bailey, Thomas G. (1950). Teach yourself Hindustani. London: English Universities Press.
  • Chatterji, Suniti K. (1960). Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Dua, Hans R. (1992). Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
  • Dua, Hans R. (1994a). Hindustani. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1554).
  • Dua, Hans R. (1994b). Urdu. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 4863–4864).
  • Rai, Amrit. (1984). A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X.

Padugang nga barasashon[igliwat | igliwat an pinagtikangan]

Mga sumpay ha gawas[igliwat | igliwat an pinagtikangan]

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