↑Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin (1993) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish,., cutlassfishes, scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(15):136 p.