↑ 2.02.12.2Collette, B.B. and J.L. Russo (1984) Morphology, systematics, and biology of the Spanish mackerels (Scomberomorus, Scombridae)., Fish. Bull. 82(4):545-692.
↑ 3.03.13.2Collette, B.B. (2003) Family Scombridae Rafinesque 1815 - mackerels, tunas, and bonitos., Calif. Acad. Sci. Annotated Checklists of Fishes (19):28.
↑ 4.04.14.24.34.44.5Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen (1983) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 p.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2001) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of December 2001., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in December 2001.