↑ 1.01.11.2Marceniuk, A.P. and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (2003) Ariidae (Sea catfishes)., p. 447-455. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.
↑Betancur-R, R., A. Acero P, E. Bermingham and R. Cooke (2007) Systematics and biogeography of New World sea catfishes (Siluriformes: Ariidae) as inferred from mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological evidence., Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 45:339-357.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2007) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of June 2007., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in June 2007.