↑Carpenter, K.E. (2002) Sparidae. Porgies., p. 1554-1577. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
↑Randall, J.E. and R. Vergara R. (1978) Sparidae., In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). FAO, Rome. Vol. 5. pag.var.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2004) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of January 2004., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in January 2004.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (1990) Catalog of the genera of recent fishes., California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA. 697 p.
↑Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray (1986) A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.