↑ 1.01.1Jégu, M. (2003) Serrasalminae (Pacus and piranhas)., p. 182-196. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.
↑Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari (1986) Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru., Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25.
↑Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott (1991) World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada., Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2004) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of January 2004., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in January 2004.