↑ 1.01.11.21.3Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman (1973) Freshwater fishes of Canada., Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966.
↑ 2.02.12.22.3Berg, L.S. (1962) Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition., Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948).
↑Vasil'ev, V.P. (1980) Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish., J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38.
↑ 4.04.1Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr (1991) A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p.