↑Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra (1991) Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species., Indo-Pacific Fishes (20):332 p.
↑Nguyen, N.T. and V.Q. Nguyen (2006) Biodiversity and living resources of the coral reef fishes in Vietnam marine waters., Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi.
↑ 4.04.14.24.34.44.5Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall (1993) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
↑Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall (1986) Serranidae., p. 509-537. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2006) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of April 2006., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in April 2006.