↑Cowley, P.D. and L.J.V. Compagno (1993) A taxonomic re-evaluation of the blue stingray from southern Africa (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae)., S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 13:135-149.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (1999) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 1999.
↑Capapé, C. and M. Desoutter (1990) Dasyatidae., p. 59-63. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1.