Dinastiya Qing

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Great Qing
大清
Daicing gurun.svg

1644–1912


Flag

Anthem
《鞏金甌》
"Gong Jin'ou"
("Cup of Solid Gold")
The Qing Empire in late 18th century
Capital Beijing
Languages Mandarin, Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan, Turki (Modern Uighur),Batakan:Sfnp numerous regional languages and varieties of Chinese
Religion Heaven worship, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism, Islam, Shamanism, others
Government Absolute monarchy
Emperor
 -  1644–1661 Shunzhi Emperor
 -  1908–1912 Xuantong Emperor
Regent
 -  1908–1912 Empress Dowager Longyu
Prime Minister
 -  1911 Yikuang
 -  1911–1912 Yuan Shikai
Historical era Imperial era
 -  Collapse of the Ming 25 April 1644
 -  Battle of Shanhai Pass 27 May 1644
 -  Sino-Japanese War 1 Aug 1894–17 Apr 1895
 -  Xinhai Revolution 10 October 1911
 -  Abdication of Puyi 12 February 1912
Area
 -  1760 est. 13,150,000 km² (5,077,243 sq mi)
 -  1790 est. (incl. vassals)[1] 14,700,000 km² (5,675,702 sq mi)
Population
 -  1740 est. 140,000,000 
 -  1776 est. 268,238,000 
 -  1790 est. 301,000,000 
Currency Cash (wén)

Tael (liǎng)

Today part of
Qing dynasty
Chinese name
Chinese
Empire of the Great Qing
Traditional Chinese 帝國
Simplified Chinese 帝国
Great Qing State
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Chinese Great Qing State
Traditional Chinese 中華
Simplified Chinese 中华
Manchu name
Manchu Daicing Gurun

Amaga Aisin Gurun

An Dinastiya Qing (Tsino: 清朝; pinyin: Qīng cháo) amo an dinastiya han mga mangulo han Manchuria, Tsina, Mongolya, Taiwan, Tibet ngan Uyguru tikang ha 1644 AD ngadto ha 1912 AD. An dinastiya gintukod han mga Manchu nga an usa nga ngaran amo an Dinastiya Manchu.

Pinanbasaran[igliwat | pagliwat han source]

  1. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 

Padugang nga barasahon[igliwat | pagliwat han source]

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  • —— (2010), The Wobbling Pivot: China since 1800, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-6079-7.
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  • Ebrey, Patricia (1993), Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (2nd edition ed.), New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-0-02-908752-7.
  • —— (2010), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-12433-1.
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  • —— (2001), The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7.
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  • Li, Gertraude Roth (2002), "State building before 1644", in Peterson, Willard, The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, The Cambridge History of China, 9, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 9–72, ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6.
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  • Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998), The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-21289-3. Paperback edition (2001) ISBN 978-0-520-92679-0.
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  • —— (2009), China's Last Empire: The Great Qing, History of Imperial China, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-03612-3.
  • Spence, Jonathan D. (2012), The Search for Modern China (3rd ed.), New York: Norton, ISBN 978-0-393-93451-9.
  • Tejapira, Kasian (2001), "Pigtail: a prehistory of Chineseness in Siam", in Tong, Chee Kiong; Chan, Kwok B., Alternate Identities: The Chinese of Contemporary Thailand, Singapore: Times Academic Press, pp. 41–66, ISBN 978-981-210-142-6.
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  • Zhao, Gang (2006), "Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century", Modern China 32 (1): 3–30, doi:10.1177/0097700405282349, JSTOR 20062627, archived from the original on 25 March 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20140325231543/https://webspace.utexas.edu/hl4958/perspectives/Zhao%20-%20reinventing%20china.pdf.
  • Bickers, Robert (2011), The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832–1914, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-7139-9749-1.
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  • Dunnell, Ruth W.; Elliott, Mark C.; Foret, Philippe et al., eds. (2004), New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-36222-6.
  • Esherick, Joseph; Kayalı, Hasan; Van Young, Eric, eds. (2006), Empire to Nation: Historical Perspectives on the Making of the Modern World, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7425-4031-6.
  • Fairbank, John K.; Liu, Kwang-Ching, eds. (1980), Late Ch'ing 1800–1911, Part 2, The Cambridge History of China, 11, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-22029-3.
  • Owen, Stephen, "The Qing Dynasty: Period Introduction," in Stephen Owen, ed. An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997. p. 909-914. (Archive).
  • Paludan, Ann (1998), Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors, London: Thames & Hudson, ISBN 978-0-500-05090-3.
  • Peterson, Willard, ed. (2003), The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, The Cambridge History of China, 11, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6.
  • Rowe, William T. (2009), The Great Qing, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-03612-3.
  • Smith, Richard Joseph (1994), China's Cultural Heritage: The Qing Dynasty, 1644–1912, Westview Press, ISBN 978-0-8133-1347-4.
  • Spence, Jonathan (1997), God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-31556-1.
  • Struve, Lynn A. (1968), Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-07553-3.
  • —— (2004), The Qing Formation in World-Historical Time, Harvard University Asia Center, ISBN 978-0-674-01399-5.
  • Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2006), The culture of war in China: empire and the military under the Qing dynasty, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-159-5.
  • Woo, X.L. (2002), Empress dowager Cixi: China's last dynasty and the long reign of a formidable concubine: legends and lives during the declining days of the Qing dynasty, Algora Publishing, ISBN 978-1-892941-88-6.
  • Zhao, Gang (2013), The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684–1757, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-3643-6.

Historiograpiya[igliwat | pagliwat han source]

  • Newby, L.J. (2011), "China: Pax Manjurica", Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 34 (4): 557–563, doi:10.1111/j.1754-0208.2011.00454.x.
  • Ho, Ping-Ti (1967), "The Significance of the Ch'ing Period in Chinese History", The Journal of Asian Studies 26 (2): 189–195, JSTOR 2051924.
  • —— (1998), "In Defense of Sinicization: A Rebuttal of Evelyn Rawski's 'Reenvisioning the Qing'", The Journal of Asian Studies 57 (1): 123–155, JSTOR 2659026.
  • Rawski, Evelyn S. (1996), "Reenvisioning the Qing: The Significance of the Qing Period in Chinese History", The Journal of Asian Studies 55 (4): 829–850, JSTOR 2646525.
  • Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2004), "The New Qing History", Radical History Review 88 (1): 193–206, doi:10.1215/01636545-2004-88-193. A review essay on revisionist works.

Mga sumpay ha gawas[igliwat | pagliwat han source]