↑ 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.101.111.12Smith, D.G. and E.B. Böhlke (1990) Muraenidae., p. 136-148. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2009) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2009., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in June 2007.