↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (1998) Catalog of fishes., Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
↑ 3.03.13.23.3Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall (1993) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.