↑Russell, B.C. (1983) The food and feeding habits of rocky reef fish of north-eastern New Zealand., N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 17(2):121-145.
↑ 2.02.1Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba (1990) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 10 (125). 442 p.