↑ 2.02.12.22.32.4Collette, B.B. (2003) Family Scombridae Rafinesque 1815 - mackerels, tunas, and bonitos., Calif. Acad. Sci. Annotated Checklists of Fishes (19):28.
↑Collette, B.B. (1990) Scombridae., p. 978-996. In J. C. Quero, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2003) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2003., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2003.
↑Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen (1983) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date., FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 p.