↑ 2.02.12.22.3Smith, D.G. and P.H.J. Castle (1990) Synaphobranchidae., p. 195-198. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1.
↑Sulak, K.J. and Y.N. Shcherbachev (1997) Zoogeography and systematics of six deep-living genera of synaphobranchid eels, with a key to taxa and description of two new species of Ilyophis., Bull. Mar. Sci. 60(3):1158-1194.